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Widespread anecdotal evidence suggests that children are suffering as parents live the hard life in China’s cities.<br> While reading online, do <b>you</b> sometimes find yourself going from reading articles on, say, politics, to poetry, to humor? If so, your experience is rather medieval, according to Arthur Bahr, an associate professor of literature at MIT whose first book, “Fragments and Assemblages: Forming Compilations of <b>Medieval</b> London“ was just released by University of Chicago Press.Medieval<br> scribes commonly bound different kinds of written works together in the same manuscript, leaving <b>“much</b> more room for interesting interplay between different kinds <b>of</b> reading experiences within the same physical object,” Bahr says.“This is <b>why</b> medieval literature is so interesting at our particular historical moment,” he says. “The Internet has made it easy, normal even,<br><img src=""><br> to read in all sorts of nonlinear ways, but the evidence of medieval compilations suggests <b>that</b> people were already<br><img src=""><br> doing that <b>many</b> centuries ago."<br> “Medieval literature is also always collaborative in one way or another: readers often commented on texts by writing notes in <b>the</b> margin or underlining passages, <b>and</b> scribes frequently altered an author's words to suit the purpose of the compilation at hand,” Bahr adds.<br> “So someone like Nick Montfort [an<br><img src=""><br> associate professor for digital writing at MIT] <b>is</b> actually very medieval in his ideas of<br><img src=""><br> nonlinear, interactive literary production.”While the typical modern book would never mix poetry with legal documents, or secular works with religious material, such juxtapositions <b>are</b> common in medieval manuscripts, which also vary widely in size and style.<br> “The printing press was great, but it also standardized the way texts<br><img src=""><br> were presented,” Bahr notes.In<br><br><img src=""><br> contrast, medieval texts were luxury items, made to order and crafted by hand. Customers would commission a variety of selections that <b>were</b> then bound together, resulting in books that are “more of an adventure,” Bahr says. “You don’t know what to expect <b>as</b> much as you do with today’s books.”Eclectic juxtapositions of textIn “Fragments and Assemblages,” Bahr explores what we can learn from the peculiar way medieval manuscripts were constructed.<br> “We’re used to the idea that a sonnet or any kind of lyric poem is an assembly of poetic lines <b>that</b> add up to something that’s greater than the sum of <b>its</b> <b>parts,”</b> Bahr says. “I thought something similar might be happening with how texts themselves were arranged in the manuscripts.”Certainly, the order of medieval manuscripts <b>cannot</b> <b>be</b> entirely random, because they were so painstakingly hand-written. Yet, the assemblages often seem quite odd to the <b>modern</b> reader, as Bahr discovered in graduate school when he <b>first</b> came across a medieval French poem bound in with legal contracts. “Interspersed within same manuscript <b>you</b> have a little poem.<br> What’s it doing there? How would people have interpreted this juxtaposition that <b>seems</b> so bizarre to us?” he wondered.Those<br> questions catalyzed the research for Bahr’s<br><img src=""><br> book, which focuses on four key compilations: the corpus of Andrew Horn, an early fourteenth century London lawyer; the Auchinleck manuscript, <b>a</b> collection of <b>romance,</b> political and religious works<br><img src=""><br> from the 1330s; Geoffrey Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” of the late 14th century; and the Trentham <b>manuscript</b> of John Gower, a Chaucer contemporary.Startling<br> <a href = "">forex-growth-bot </a> <b>poem</b> Bahr found was bound along with Horn’s legal documents, and that manuscript led him in turn to the Auchinleck text, which was written by some of the same scribes.<br> “I picked a part <b>of</b> the manuscript that looks particularly weird, and I thought, if<br><img src=""><br> I suppose the arrangement is not just <b>randomness,</b> what would I find?” <b>he</b> says. “What I found <b>was</b> a <b>set</b> of thematic concerns startlingly similar to Horn’s.”These<br> center on how members of the emergent medieval middle class thought of themselves. “I argue that you can actually see a working through of [the process of self-conceptualization] in the way in which<br><img src=""><br> these manuscripts get constructed because, just as compilations are <b>assemblages</b> of multiple disparate pieces, so too <b>London</b> was made up of many different professions and classes who were often in tension with one another. There's an analogy between the textual and the social, in other words," Bahr says.<br>  He <b>also</b> argues that the celebrated works of Chaucer and Gower are not <b>—</b> as is sometimes supposed — <b>a</b> miraculous flowering of English literature without native antecedents. In fact, he says, the late 14th century is crucially indebted to earlier 14th-century texts.<br> “Even if they were not mostly in English, they still influenced how these quintessentially English poets imagined the interpretative potentialities of their own literary production,” Bahr says.For<br> Chaucer, this includes giving <b>readers</b> an express invitation to <b>rearrange</b> <b>his</b> tales — indicating that 14th-century Londoners understood the physical manuscript as something that readers could interpretively reimagine.<br> “And that’s pretty radical and pretty cool,” Bahr says.It’s also pretty cutting-edge, even today.<br> <b>In</b> selecting Sylvia Mathews Burwell, President Obama enlisted another Clinton-era veteran for his economic team. CHARLESTON, W.Va. - A national lobbying group for the chemical industry wants a federal judge in West<br><img src=""><br> Virginia to tread lightly in a lawsuit over a <b>deadly</b> chemical stored at a Bayer CropScience plant, arguing his rulings could have nationwide implications. A<br><img src=""><br> THEME OF Vincent C. Gray's successful mayoral campaign last year was his questioning of his opponent's <b>integrity.</b> Exhibit A in his argument that Mayor Adrian M.<br> Fenty (D) <b>ran</b> a suspect administration was the awarding of contracts for park and recreation projects to firms with ties to the mayor.... KABUL - An Afghan government probe of private security companies has accused 16 firms of violations that include employing too many guards, failing to pay taxes for up to two years, and keeping unregistered weapons <b>and</b> armored vehicles. Despite agreeing in principle on a settlement, the producers and former director <b>of</b> the show have not been able to hammer out final details in their dispute over copyright and profits.<br> Expert on the law of the sea who became a world authority on <b>the</b> international regulation of whalingPatricia <b>Birnie's</b> expertise in law of the sea and international environmental law brought her to prominence <b>at</b> a time when <b>the</b> latter <b>field</b> especially was still in its infancy. In 1983 she joined the law department <b>at</b> the London School of Economics, <b>then</b> as now one of the world's leading repositories of scholarship and teaching in international law. There she <a href = "">tinnitus miracle review </a> of the sea to graduate students and<br><img src=""><br> developed a new LLM course on international environmental law. This <b>groundbreaking</b> course was soon drawing outstanding students from all over <b>the</b> world, many now prominent in governments and international organisations.By<br> the time she left the LSE in 1989, <b>she</b> was one of the world's foremost <b>international</b> environmental lawyers. Her advice was sought by prominent NGOs such <b>as</b> the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and by various governments.<br> Above all, it was her contribution to the writing of International Law and the Environment (1992) that will give Pat, who <b>has</b> died aged 86, an enduring reputation among students and practitioners.She<br> was born into a<br><img src=""><br> well-to-do family in Lytham St Annes, Lancashire, but her father was ruined in the great crash of 1929, and Pat was brought <b>up</b> by <b>an</b> aunt and uncle. They made sure she was well educated at Queen <b>Mary</b> school, Lytham St Annes, and then at St Hilda's College, Oxford, where <b>she</b> studied jurisprudence and took a cricket blue.<br> Pat was called <b>to</b> the <b>bar</b> in 1952, at a time<br><img src=""><br> when women barristers were <b>still</b> rarities, and fewer still went into practice.She was a born academic, though it took some time for her to realise this.<br> Her first job was in the civil service, managing naval estimates <b>at</b> the Treasury, where she met her Scottish husband, Sandy, whom she married in 1951.<br> In 1963 he <b>took</b> her <b>and</b> their three young children back to Scotland, where Pat established a new career teaching international law, initially part-time at Aberdeen and Edinburgh University, before taking a<br><img src=""><br> full-time lecturer <b>post</b> at Edinburgh in 1973.There she wrote and published a PhD on the international law of whaling, becoming the world authority on this controversial subject, and attending meetings of the International Whaling Commission as a legal expert on behalf <b>of</b> various NGOs or as part of the British delegation.<br> Her thesis was published in 1985 <b>as</b> The International Regulation of Whaling and is still relevant today in the battle about <b>the</b> legality of Japanese scientific whaling – a question that will be argued in the <b>international</b> court of justice this summer. Pat's thesis provides much of the essential background research on <b>the</b> origins and <b>negotiation</b> of the 1946 Whaling Convention and her analysis of <b>why</b> that convention does not work remains uncontradicted.When she moved to the LSE, she had already established the reputation that would sustain her to the end of her career. Extremely knowledgeable about a large array of subjects, she had a superb grasp of the law, but could also explain its importance in the <b>real</b> world.It<br><img src=""><br> was in London, at a lecture she gave on international environmental law, that I<br><img src=""><br> first met Pat. Her talk was characteristic – slightly breathless, difficult <b>to</b><br><img src=""><br> cram into the allotted hour, and full of <b>new</b> developments in a subject that still <b>struggled</b> for acceptance among the more conservative professors.<br> But Pat was never deterred by conservatism. She simply sailed calmly round the obstacles, her Treasury training coming in most useful.No<br> doubt this was one of the reasons why she was headhunted from <a href = "">aquaponics 4 you pdf </a> by the International Maritime Organisation to become founding director of the International Maritime Law Institute in Malta, building it within a <b>few</b> years into a successful training academy for young maritime lawyers from many jurisdictions.<br> She retired from there in 1994 and spent several weeks driving slowly from the capital, Valletta, back to Oxfordshire and a cottage in Brill.She gave freely of her expertise in support of various organisations dealing with law of the sea and protection of the marine <b>environment,</b> including the Advisory Committee on Pollution of the Sea (ACOPS), and <b>the</b> Greenwich Forum, <b>an</b> independent body that promotes public awareness of Britain's dependence on the sea, of which she was chair for many<br><img src=""><br> years.<br> But she was not <b>starry-eyed</b> about her role. Here was a shrewd and hard-headed lawyer, who knew well that to do good requires professionalism as much as it requires idealism, that saying something should be law does not make it so.And<br> it was always obvious to those around her that if she was going <b>to</b> save the world, she would most definitely enjoy herself while doing so.<br> No opportunity for a new outdoor experience was ever turned down, and even in her 70s she took her first <b>flights</b> <b>in</b> a balloon and a glider.<br> Everyone who knew her had a Pat Birnie story, if not a fund of them.My own favourite is the one about an escaped whale hovering in Turkish territorial waters. The Russians wanted it back in their aquarium. But would it be lawful for the Turks to catch it? Would they be violating the Whaling Convention? No, Pat advised, catching a whale alive for an aquarium <b>was</b> not whaling and did not contravene the convention. But first, catch your whale.She is survived by her son, Charles, her daughters, <b>Louise</b> and Jessica, and six grandchildren. Sandy died in 1982.•<br> Patricia Winifred Birnie, legal scholar, born 17 November 1926; died 7 February 2013London School of Economics and Political ScienceLawWhalingMaltaAlan<br> &copy; 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms &<br><img src=""><br> Conditions | More Feeds Unusual collaborations, like Hussein Chalayan and a jeans company, <b>highlight</b> events for shoppers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The pilot at the controls on <b>Asiana</b> Flight 214 was said to have had only 43 hours of experience flying a Boeing 777, and an airline spokeswoman said that it was <b>his</b> first time piloting a 777 <b>into</b> San Francisco.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br> Four MIT neuroscientists were among those invited to the White House on Tuesday, <b>April</b> 2, when President Barack Obama announced a new initiative to understand the human brain.<br> Professors Ed Boyden, Emery Brown, Robert Desimone and Sebastian Seung were among a group of <b>leading</b> researchers who joined Obama for the announcement, along <b>with</b> Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, and representatives of federal and private funders of neuroscience research. <b>In</b> unveiling the BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative, Obama highlighted brain research as one of his administration’s “grand <b>challenges”</b> — ambitious yet achievable goals that demand new innovations and breakthroughs in science and<br><img src=""><br> technology. <a href = "">natural vitiligo treatment review </a> goal of the BRAIN Initiative will be to accelerate the development of new technologies to visualize<br><img src=""><br> brain activity <b>and</b> to understand how this activity is linked to behavior and to brain disorders.<br> “There is this enormous mystery waiting to be unlocked,” Obama said, “and the BRAIN Initiative <b>will</b> change that by giving scientists the<br><img src=""><br> tools they need to get a dynamic picture of the brain in action and better understand how we think and how we learn and how we remember. And that knowledge could be — will be — transformative.”<br> To<br><img src=""><br> jump-start the initiative, the NIH, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the National Science Foundation will invest some $100 million in research support beginning in the next fiscal year. Planning will be overseen by a working group co-chaired by Cornelia Bargmann PhD ’87, now at Rockefeller University, and William Newsome of Stanford University.<br> Brown, an MIT professor of computational neuroscience and of health sciences and technology, will serve as a member of the working group. Boyden, the Benesse Career Development Associate Professor of Research in Engineering, has pioneered the development of new technologies for studying brain activity.<br> Desimone, the Doris and <b>Don</b> Berkey Professor of Neuroscience, is director of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research, which conducts research in many areas relevant to the new initiative.<br> Seung, <b>a</b> professor of computational neuroscience and physics, is a leader in the field of “connectomics,” the effort to describe the wiring diagram of the brain. Cristiano <b>Ronaldo’s</b> goal with about 20 minutes left gave Real Madrid a 3-2 aggregate lead over Manchester United, securing <b>Real’s</b> passage to <b>the</b> Champions League quarterfinals. Eight scientific groups representing 40,000 researchers are calling for a change in the way the federal government <b>assesses</b> the safety <b>of</b> chemicals in <b>everyday</b> products.<br> Stage designer and architect Mark Fisher the man responsible for stunning stage setups for the Rolli[...]<br> Francis’ march <b>to</b> the papacy <b>began</b> with the meetings of cardinals that occurred before the conclave. His remarks struck a chord, but he held on to a low<br><img src=""><br> profile. As more pedestrians take to <b>the</b> pedals, <b>it</b> was perhaps inevitable <b>that</b> the helmet evolve from hair-flattening safety necessity to accessory.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For a small group of the young, <b>digital</b> elite, Enstitute seeks to challenge the conventional wisdom that top professional jobs always require a bachelor’s degree.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br> Real Madrid’s Jose Mourinho did <b>not</b> attend the FIFA Ballon d’Or gala because he was warned by some of those who voted for him as coach of the year that their votes showed up as supporting other candidates <b>instead.</b> Mahmoud Abbas, the president of the Palestinian Authority, arrived in China just ahead of the Israeli leader Benjamin Netanyahu, but there were no plans for a meeting between the two.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Customers will not be able to take home device from most mobile phone shops in UK and US during launch weekendThe global release of Samsung's blockbuster Galaxy S4 phone on Saturday is being hampered by supply shortages so severe that customers will not be able to take home a device from most Carphone Warehouse and Phones4U <b>stores</b> during the launch weekend."Due to <a href = "">trademiner </a> demand for Galaxy S4, the initial supply may be limited.<br> We expect to <b>fulfil</b> inventory to meet demands in the coming weeks," Samsung said.Pre-orders online are understood to have outstripped availability <b>in</b> many shops and networks. Shipment delays could lead to a <b>slow</b> start for the device in the UK and the US, where Samsung hopes to overtake Apple as the leading mobile phone brand.Three<br> US networks have delayed their on-sale dates for the S4, while UK retailers Carphone Warehouse and Phones4U<br><img src="*0RMsNFnDVQyEQS1d3saH8JfSRh07HQ7esWLFNKh/Barney.jpg"><br> have both warned of shortages.<br> Phones4U will have no devices until next week, its call centre staff are warning customers."All<br> available stock<br><img src=""><br> will <b>be</b> used to fulfil pre-orders before going into our stores and we are working with Samsung to <b>ensure</b> that all pre-orders and sales across our other channels are fulfilled as quickly as possible," the company said. "We anticipate that handsets will be in store <b>next</b> week but cannot confirm an<br><img src=""><br> exact date."<br> Most Carphone stores will not stock the device for the launch weekend, the retailer added."We have seen huge customer interest in <b>the</b> Samsung Galaxy S4," a Carphone Warehouse spokesman said.<br> "Our number one <b>priority</b> is our customers, and we are working hard to ensure that we fulfil as many <b>pre-orders</b> for <b>the</b> handset as possible. We will ensure that every customer impacted by any <b>supply</b> issues is contacted and informed of the likely delivery of their new handset."America's largest network, Verizon Wireless, will not stock the S4 available until <b>30</b> May; T-Mobile will begin taking online orders only from 29 April. Sprint will <b>take</b> online orders starting Saturday as planned, but the phone will<br><img src=""><br> be sold at retail outlets only as it becomes available."The<br> smartphone industry is growing so quickly that <b>the</b> <b>component</b> industry hasn't been able to keep pace with that growth," said Neil Mawston at Strategy Analytics. He said sourcing memory chips seemed to be the main challenge.A<br> lukewarm reception for the S4 from reviewers does not appear to have dampened demand for the latest edition in Samsung's best-selling Galaxy range.<br> The device is forecast to ship 25m units globally in its first two months, according to Mawston, almost exactly on a par with the <b>iPhone</b> <b>5."Ideally</b> you want to get everything into that launch window at the same time – <b>and</b> at the same exact hour – to get maximum impact," said Avi Greengart at New Jersey based Current Analysis.SamsungComputingTablet computersSmartphonesT-MobileAppleCarphone WarehouseMobile phonesUnited StatesJuliette &copy; 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or <b>its</b> affiliated companies. All rights reserved.<br> | Use of this content is <b>subject</b> to our Terms & Conditions | More <b>Feeds&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</b> <b>Prayad</b> Marksaeng shot a final-round 64 for a 24-under-par total of 264 to win the Thailand Open Sunday. Theatrical pop-rocker Adam Lambert <b>is</b> joining the cast of Glee for Season Five Showrunner Ryan Murph[...] WASHINGTON -- In the midst of the budget crisis, an old debate has broken out with new force: Should Social <b>Security</b> be seen as part of the deficit that Washington needs to rein in? Matchbooks were once ephemera <b>—</b> written on, burned up <b>in</b> the space of a weekend — but they’re now a

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