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Back <b>at</b> the MIT Experimental and <b>Non</b> Linear Dynamics <b>Lab,</b> their LCS approach is going global, from Brazil to Taiwan, all the way off the northwest coast of Australia to the Ningaloo Reef, a World Heritage ecosystem facing oil spill threats from close proximity offshore facilities in operation, as well as planned exploratory drilling. <b>But</b> the reef has guardians. Peacock and collaborator Greg Ivey, professor of <b>geophysical</b> fluid dynamics at the University of <b>Western</b> Australia, are analyzing the complex flow fields that prevail in the waters off Ningaloo.<br> They hope to determine when the reef<br><img src=""><br> is at high risk and how long those danger periods last.<br> So, what if another spill the size of <b>Deep</b> Water Horizon <b>happened</b> today? "We would be in a better position than we were at the time," Beegle-Krause says. "We have <b>the</b> analysis method.<br> But we don't have a product ready yet <b>that</b> responders can use to make decisions in a spill.<br> That's what needs to happen — the transition<br><img src=""><br> from peer-reviewed science to a decision support product."<br> Beegle-Krause and Peacock are now collaborating on such an industry product.<br> She estimates that with all necessary funding, the product could be ready in two years. If there ever was at time to push this application forward, this is it. In the last three years, we experienced the largest accidental marine oil spill <b>in</b> the history of the petroleum industry and the largest<br><img src=""><br> accidental release of radioactive material into the ocean, along with five million tons of debris. "That has certainly made funding agencies sit up and take notice," notes Peacock, who <b>has</b> recently received <b>new</b> funding from the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research to advance these methods.<br> These familiar disasters <b>are,</b> inevitably, not the last marine "accidents." If <b>we</b> can't prevent the disasters, we might as well beat the wreckage to the shore. But when several mills closed in <b>the</b> early 1980s, the tens of thousands of newly unemployed steelworkers in Chicago and the surrounding area<br><img src=""><br> had massive problems <b>keeping</b> themselves, and their families, afloat.<br> Within a decade of the Wisconsin Steel closure, 800 of its 3,400 former workers had died, many after struggles with alcoholism or other problems tied to their unemployment and lack of <b>other</b> options. Many steelworkers felt that because of their membership in unions, they were discriminated against when<br><img src=""><br> looking for other work; in many <b>households,</b> wives had <b>to</b> go back <b>to</b> work to keep families going, a further humiliation to <b>the</b> steelworkers.“It was my father’s paycheck <b>from</b> the mills that was his source of manhood and self-respect,” Walley writes.<br> Walley also asserts that we should reconsider the “dominant narrative” of the decline of the American steel industry, which many observers characterized as having grown inefficient. Actually, Walley <b>asserts,</b> empirical research has shown that American steel mills were still more profitable in the 1970s, just before the shutdowns commenced, than their state-subsidized Japanese competitors.<br> The problem, she writes, was that “they weren’t profitable enough, in comparison to … high finance.”<br> In this way, Walley <b>says,</b> the Wisconsin Steel case is an early example of contemporary corporate practices, <b>linked</b> to the financialization of the economy, which occur at <b>the</b> expense of workers and their communities.<br> Controversially, the <b>firm</b> had been sold in the late<br><img src=""><br> 1970s in what was effectively a leveraged buyout; the legal maneuvering around the firm’s closure allowed the holding company <b>to</b> force the government to pick up the tab for its unfunded pension guarantees. More generally, this kind of buyout, followed by asset-stripping and closure, Walley notes, allows enterprises to steer cash to more lucrative investments in financial markets, instead of being <b>bound</b> to bricks-and-mortar businesses.<br> Cancer and class“Exit Zero” takes an unexpected twist when Walley recounts <b>how,</b> at age 27, she was diagnosed<br><img src=""><br> with an unusual form of cancer.<br> While her treatment <b>was</b> successful, she suspects,<br><img src=""><br> but cannot <b>prove,</b> that her illness <b>was</b> related to environmental conditions in southeast Chicago, where many potential carcinogens<br><img src=""><br> were released.More<br> generally, Walley states, exposure to environmental hazards is yet another way that class stratification <b>manifests</b> itself in America. As she writes, “just as throughout our lives we drag our class experiences and the related aspects of who we are with us, our bodies <b>also</b> carry this legacy <b>of</b> chemical exposures as we move into the future.”<br> Walley’s book is part of a larger project on industrial southeast Chicago — accompanied by a documentary film to be completed this year, also called “Exit Zero,” that Walley <b>has</b> produced<br><img src=""><br> in collaboration with her husband, documentary filmmaker Chris Boebel. She is also helping to develop a related website, in conjunction with the Southeast Chicago Historical Museum, intended <b>to</b> feature archival materials and oral accounts <b>from</b> <b>others</b> <b>who</b> experienced the same economic <b>changes.<br></b> A daylong event <b>featuring</b> the book and film will be held at Chicago’s Field Museum in April. “Exit Zero” has been <b>praised</b> by other scholars of <b>labor;</b> David Bensman, a professor at Rutgers University’s School of Management and Labor Relations, has called the book an <b>“illuminating”</b> analysis that makes<br><img src=""><br> clear <b>that</b> <b>“the</b> working-class world is poorly understood both in popular culture and in mainstream academic literature.” As Walley acknowledges, her family’s story is just one historical thread within the large, <b>complicated</b> fabric of American industry. But precisely by making her account a personal one, she says, she aims to show to a general audience the human effects of economic changes that public figures often describe in abstract, impersonal terms.“This is a book of stories … but those stories are the terrain for further analysis,” Walley says. “I wanted it to be accessible to many kinds <b>of</b> readers, including those who don’t normally read academic work, as a way of having<br><img src=""><br> a discussion about these issues.”I should have known that Jack LaLanne was pulling a fast one, but my heart sank when I first saw the fitness guru slumped before the television in his hotel suite.<br> <b>Defenseman</b> Matt Niskanen scored the go-ahead goal in the third period<br><img src=""><br> and Sidney Crosby had two assists and the Pittsburgh Penguins extended their winning streak to 10 games with a 2-1 victory over the Washington Capitals on Tuesday. As a member of the interdisciplinary Darwin Project in the MIT Earth Systems Initiative, biogeochemical modeler Michael (Mick) Follows investigates<br><img src=""><br> the enormous role phytoplankton play in the ocean<br><img src=""><br> ecosystem.<br> These tiny photosynthetic organisms float around by the <b>billions,</b> providing half the world's total oxygen and cycling carbon in our <b>atmosphere</b> and oceans.<br> Follows doesn't actually handle green slime; he tries to capture the "tangled wooly mess" of complex ecological relationships in numerical models, or computer-simulated <b>oceans.</b> Now, last Friday's announcement that Follows has <b>been</b> promoted to tenured associate professor means he will continue to contribute highly original thinking and enthusiasm at the institution he's called home <b>for</b> nearly 20 years. With his pierced ear and everyday outfit of <b>jeans</b> and a plaid flannel vest, it's always easy to pick Follows out of a crowd. In the past, he was advised to blend <b>in</b> a little more, to look more like a professor. "But he never did change," says John Marshall, an oceanographer at MIT who <b>has</b> known Follows for decades.<br> "That's what I like about him." Members of his group value Follows for his upbeat attitude and unending enthusiasm for research. "He's full of ideas and new ways of doing things," says <b>Stephanie</b> Dutkiewicz, principal research scientist in the <b>Darwin</b> Project. "Sometimes <b>too</b> many ideas to handle." Marine microbes <b>are</b> inarguably a key piece in the<br><img src=""><br> puzzle of understanding how ocean ecology <b>will</b> change in a warming climate. For <b>this</b> reason, Follows often encounters the growing <b>call</b> in the microbiology community for a less crude incorporation of <b>microbial</b> processes into global ocean/climate models.<br> "But that <b>gets</b> pretty hairy pretty quickly," he <b>says</b> in <b>an</b> accent that evokes his<br><img src=""><br> childhood in <b>rural</b> England.<br><img src=""><br> What he means is that there's a devil in the details.<br> The fact is, current models of <b>plankton</b> physiology are still based on the 1940s work of biological oceanographer pioneer Gordon Riley. "If Riley could look<br><img src=""><br> at global ocean models today, he wouldn't find anything mysterious about the equations we use to describe plankton physiology," says Follows, ever armed with historical context.<br> Yet, 70 years of biological advances in genomics have yielded ways to map <b>out</b> the <b>metabolic</b> machinery of plankton cells in unprecedented detail.<br> In short, the field needs a genius-level breakthrough in modeling if we<br><img src=""><br> are ever to incorporate the new data <b>sets.<br></b> "Maybe <b>we</b> need to ditch Riley at this point," he admits.<br> Follows takes a pragmatic <b>approach.</b> "To me, its not clear how much of that detail matters for understanding what will happen to the carbon cycle over next 100 years," he says. "I think there's something in between where we <b>can</b> map <b>out</b> a broad-brush picture of what going on in the cell to give a more realistic,<br><img src=""><br> responsive physiology than we have now." Until about eight years ago, Follows hadn't studied <b>biology</b> since high school. But that changed when his <b>then</b> graduate student, Fanny <b>Monteiro</b> PhD '09, now <b>at</b> the University of Bristol, began to model nitrogen-fixing phytoplankton populations. She specifically explored how this specific organism might coexist with the general population and adapt to changing conditions.<br> Follows experienced what he calls a "brainwave."<br> He realized <b>that</b> the Darwinian principle<br><img src=""><br> of natural selection could transform modeling. As any biologist knows, adaptive fitness shapes everything.<br> The ability to adapt to certain conditions determines which phytoplankton physiologies survive or <b>dominate.</b> For example, large phytoplankton tend to have fast growth rates and a high demand for nutrients, whereas smaller phytoplankton grow more slowly <b>but</b> can survive in lower nutrient levels. This life process varies across space, time and temperatures.<br> And modeling it takes tremendous computing power. In an unusual break from physical oceanography, Follows made his foray into biology by building a novel kind of model.<br> Whereas previous models predetermined where certain phytoplankton populations should live in the ocean, Follows' model uses only several hardwired rules (e.g.<br> size, growth rate, nutrient needs), and then explicitly <b>allows</b> a<br><img src=""><br> diverse phytoplankton population to compete and <b>self-organize</b> <b>according</b> to temperature in the virtual environment.<br> The model's outputs reveal which physiological traits allowed some organisms to dominate an ocean region and which prevented survival in another.<br> The project won funding from the Moore Foundation in 2007, after the model's outputs of phytoplankton distributions and traits matched up well with real-world <b>observations.<br></b> <b>The</b> group grew with new members from PAOC and <b>the</b> Department of Civil Engineering at MIT, becoming known <b>as</b> 'the Darwin Project.'<br> Since then, the model has achieved <b>similar</b> successes, including the replication of observed phytoplankton diversity. Some feel that Follows' work has already triggered the sorely needed paradigm shift in biogeochemical modeling. "He is the first to couple Darwinian descriptions <b>of</b> microbiological processes with numerical models of the global ocean," says Sallie (Penny) Chisholm, Professor of Environmental Studies in MIT's Department of <b>Civil</b> <b>and</b> Environmental Engineering, who helped discover Prochlorococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic organism in 1988. "It is <b>now</b> possible to model <b>co-evolution</b> of these phenomena, revealing underlying drivers for emergent patterns <b>of</b> microbial diversity in the sea.<br> This <b>project</b> has taken enormous intellectual courage." Follows is happy to <b>remain</b> at MIT to inch closer and closer <b>to</b> understanding how diverse microbes impact the <b>ocean's</b> carbon <b>cycle.<br></b> "I'm excited <b>that</b> you can follow your nose <b>here,"</b> he says. "This research environment is so rich in opportunities to collaborate with experts that you can let the science questions pull you in directions you <b>never</b> thought you would go."<br> Wisconsin just kept <b>missing.<br></b> The Badgers were icy cold from long range, <b>simple</b> layups a risky proposition.<br> And they only <b>trailed</b> by three at the break. Chief executives offer tips for establishing a cohesive <b>team</b> and clear goals.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Give me an S-C-I-E-N-C-E! is a blog about professional cheerleaders who are pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and math. The founder of the blog is Darlene Cavalier, a former Philadelphia 76ers cheerleader who worked at Discover magazine for<br><img src=""><br> 10 years and a... Leonard Cohen didn't release his debut single "Suzanne" until he was 33 He spent his time up until t[...] THE QUESTION Might <b>sugar-sweetened</b> drinks lead to gestational diabetes? Based on their <b>trailers,</b> the nominees for<br><img src=""><br> Best Foreign Film seem to share the political awareness that also characterizes the major Oscar films <b>this</b> awards season.<br> THE BEAUTY OF the First Amendment is often most vibrantly expressed under the ugliest of <b>circumstances.<br></b> Such <b>was</b> the case Wednesday when the Supreme Court <b>gave</b> its <b>blessing</b> to the insensitive acts of a tiny church that has made a<br><img src=""><br> name for itself by mounting protests at the funerals of fallen... Spain playmaker Xavi is a major doubt <b>for</b> Friday's World Cup <b>Group</b> I qualifier at home to Finland after he missed Tuesday's (March 19) <b>training</b> session due to a niggling hamstring injury Duke won't get caught looking ahead in this NCAA tournament. Senate Democrats on Thursday abandoned their efforts to approve a comprehensive funding bill for the federal government after Republicans rebelled<br><img src=""><br> against its $1.2 trillion cost and the inclusion of nearly 7,000 line-item projects for individual lawmakers. We <a href = "">forex growth bot </a> the veteran games developer about his company's <b>stock</b> market floatation, the forthcoming Elite sequel and the cheap computer that's teaching kids<br><img src=""><br> to codeOn a terrace outside the Hilton hotel in Brighton, <b>I'm</b> sitting with the man who <b>co-wrote</b> Elite, one of the greatest space games of all time.<br> "It's hot, I'm going to change tops," he declares. And surrounded by delegates attending the packed Develop 2013 conference, he does just that. I glance down at my notes and think about how surreal it always is to meet David Braben, having spent months of my early gaming life zooming through the universe he co-created, trading narcotics and luxury goods on far-off space stations.<br> Now we are about to talk about <b>Elite's</b> long-awaited new instalment. As soon as he's got his <b>top</b> back on.It's<br> been an interesting month for Frontier Developments, <b>the</b> studio set up by Braben in 1994.<br> It has just been admitted to AIM, the London-based stock exchange for smaller<br><img src=""><br> companies, with a market capitalisation of £39.4m. Shares will begin trading on 15 July. This follows a round of investor funding in <b>June</b> that raised another £2.8m. At a time in which UK developers are struggling to find a place in the global games business, this is ambitious stuff.<br> So why an IPO now? "The time was right," says Braben simply.<br> "Essentially, <b>we</b> have an additional £10m of cash now; we already had a fair amount in the business, but it allows us to move to the next stage. The industry is changing so rapidly –look at the rise of digital sales across all platforms. It presents amazing opportunities to <b>do</b> really exciting things."One<br> of those things is, of course, Elite: Dangerous, a fourth title in the legendary series of space combat and trading simulations.<br> But Braben is facing controversy here: last year, the title was crowdfunded via Kickstarter, raising over £1.5m <b>from</b> more than 25,000 backers. Now, many<br><img src=""><br> of those supporters are flooding<br><img src=""><br> the Elite project page with angry questions – if there were plans to raise cash through an IPO, and if there was already money in the company coffers, why did Frontier turn to Kickstarter? This comes after all the anger <b>focused</b> <b>at</b> Double Fine last week; Tim Schafer's studio will have to release its latest title, Broken Age, in two segments, the former helping to fund the latter, <b>even</b> after <b>raising</b> $3.3m<br> for the game – again <b>on</b> Kickstarter.<br> There have<br><img src=""><br> always been questions about more established <b>studios</b> using crowdfunding sites – another ambiguous case study won't help.Braben though is unrepentant. "The Elite <b>Kickstarter</b> was very important for three <b>reasons,"</b> he explains. "To prove that there <b>really</b> were people seriously interested in the game; to provide a great sounding board to validate ideas and plans for the <b>game</b> we were making; and to provide funds to reduce the risks of development.<br> Though it wasn't the whole fund for development, it makes a big difference."So<br> Kickstarter was only ever part of process for <b>bringing</b> the game into development? Braben says not.<br> "Kickstarter was solely responsible <b>for</b> getting the game off the ground. We were already doing 'skunkworks' development on it, but the successful Kickstarter was needed to give us the confidence to commit a big <b>portion</b> of our available resources – people and money – to the game."<br> As for <b>concerns</b> over whether shareholders will now threaten the creative autonomy of the studio, <b>he's</b> similarly adamant.<br> "We're doing it to get greater control. Look at what we're doing with Elite; we have the flexibility to make <b>the</b> games we really want to make, to keep moving things forward."It's tricky, because there is still clearly a <b>disparity</b> between the way some gamers view Kickstarter and the way some developers use it. It's a <b>mistake</b> to see the site as an <b>ethos</b> – it's a funding platform for businesses; funders need to understand that.<br> But studios must <b>also</b> be ready to answer questions and face flak from <b>people</b> who put money into projects they care about. The executive producer of <b>Elite,</b> Michael <b>Brookes,</b> has been on the <b>Kickstarter</b> forum,<br><img src=""><br> assuring backers about the process; explaining that the IPO is about the security of the whole company. Elite is safe, he says, and your money made it happen.<br> But he's not dealing with shareholders, he's dealing with the emotional investments of fans. It's an ambiguous relationship. And at the centre of it, is this very exciting, much-anticipated game.<br> Due out on PC and Mac in March 2014, Elite: Dangerous is certainly a leap forward. As in the <b>1984</b> original, players will begin with a <b>small</b> spaceship <b>and</b> <b>100</b> credits, and the <b>aim</b> is to make money by trading between planets, improving your craft,<br><img src=""><br> indulging <b>in</b> aerial combat, and gradually ranking up.<br> This all takes place in a procedurally generated universe, densely packed with stars and space stations; players will be able to explore the galaxies offline, but there is also a massively multiplayer component, complete with a dynamic economy and political system.<br> Prices will fall and rise in different systems depending on the trading conditions; and NPC police craft will patrol deep space, hunting down pilots who blast innocent passers-by into star dust. Beyond this, there will be<br><img src=""><br> dozens of ships to <b>buy</b> and upgrade, <b>all</b> with fully 3D cockpits (and later, <b>players</b> may even be able to move around inside the craft).<br> You'll be able <b>to</b> slipstream other players through <b>hyperspace,</b> share navi-com data <b>with</b> <b>friends</b> on team quests and become involved in a wider narrative of galactic war. <b>There</b> are hints in Braben's Kickstarter developer diaries that other platforms may eventually be added to the roll-out.It <b>is</b> a huge expansion of the Elite<br><img src=""><br> premise, and Frontier is keeping funders up to date with video diaries and polls on key design decisions.<br> Is there pressure in having to appease hardcore fans while still appealing to newcomers? "What we're trying to do is make the game as well as we possibly can," he says. "I've said from the beginning that we're not going to <b>get</b> hung up on this focus group approach; we<br><img src=""><br> will build the best game that we want to play… I probably <b>sit</b> somewhere between the camps.<br> I love the nostalgia of the old game, but I also see what we can improve." Tellingly, Braben talks a lot about the connected era of game design; of improved broadband access and digital distribution making it easier for developers to add content post-release. It's likely Elite will take the <b>whole</b> "game-as-platform" approach, with regular <b>updates</b> <b>and</b> additions added after initial release.<br> "All the things I've always wanted to do with the game we have the opportunity to do," he says.<br> "We won't necessarily do them all for day one – we can say, this feature will derail the launch <b>massively,</b> let's bring it out slightly later. There's been a lot <b>of</b> talk about landing on planets, a lot of partisan discussion.<br> It will be phenomenal and I want to do it, but I<br><img src=""><br> want to get it just right and I don't want it <b>to</b> delay things."Elsewhere, the company is planning to license elements of its proprietary Cobra engine to other developers, and it has <b>several</b> unannounced projects in production. Considering the studio's work <b>on</b> important Kinect titles like Kinectimals and Disneyland Adventures, surely there must be Xbox One <b>projects</b> on its itinerary. Microsoft certainly needs advocates for its ever-present motion tracking gadget and Braben sees the omnipresence of Kinect in a positive light. "The beauty of the technology just being there is that developers can use it as much or as little as <b>they</b> like," he says. "I think one of the uses of the original Kinect was in Skyrim – just being able to shout at the screen while still frantically button mashing was fantastic. And with <b>first-person</b> shooters, the ability to tilt your head to look round corners is wonderful as well.<br> It's that sort of thing, subtle implementations, rather than pure motion-controlled experiences. We'll see things change, we'll see genres mutate and merge."There is also Raspberry Pi, the mini-PC designed by Eben Upton and several colleagues from the University of Cambridge, and built with Braben's assistance. The hope was to create a computer cheap enough to introduce as many children as possible to programming. The size of a large matchbox, it features an ARM processor and HD video capabilities, and will <b>run</b> a variety of software applications, including coding languages.<br> Since its launch, <b>the</b> device has been adopted in schools as well as by researchers and has a thriving developer community. "There's been so much support for the whole concept," <b>says</b> Braben.<br> "There were 10 years in which we had no teaching of coding in schools; terms like nerd and geek made it embarrassing for kids to admit their interest – that was a tragedy. Hopefully, we've turned that a little bit with Raspberry Pi. When we made the first 10,000 units, we thought that was all the developer units we'd be able to sell – but we sold out in seconds. We're now selling that many every day. We're coming up to the point at which the Raspberry Pi will have sold as many as the <b>BBC</b> Micro – that's a significant number."So<br> what have been some of <b>his</b> favourite uses? "I love some of the robotics implementations, and there <b>have</b> been some high profile uses in space flights, <b>but</b> <b>for</b> me what's more important is that so many people are <b>using</b> it individually and in schools. Just seeing teachers <b>backing</b> this … we're giving them ammo to teach subjects they care about.<br> It matters that those people have engaged so positively. In the same way that I got started through computers like the Acorn Atom, I hope that in <b>10</b> or 20 years' time there will be developers giving <b>interviews</b> saying 'I got where I am today because <b>of</b> Raspberry Pi.'"Braben is always interesting to interview – he exudes the typical enthusiasm of the original bedroom coders;<br><img src=""><br> the ones <b>who</b> basically had to fight 8bit technology to get it to play games.<br> But he's also a businessman, and <b>some</b> of that comes through while we're chatting about the IPO. At one point I suggest that becoming a public company has not always benefited UK developers. I mention <b>Argonaut,</b> a <b>key</b> British studio <b>of</b> the eighties and nineties that floated in 1999, only to go bust five years later. There's a gasp of shock and incredulity from Braben and Frontier's COO David Walsh, who's also at the table. It's followed swiftly by laughter. "Oh don't give me that," protests Braben. "That was a long time ago and I so strongly <b>disagreed</b> with what happened <b>there."Later,</b> feeling suitably chastened, I speak <b>to</b> Nick Gibson, an industry<br><img src=""><br> veteran and analyst at Games Investor Consulting.<br><br><img src=""><br> He reels off a list <b>of</b> developers that crashed after high profile public floatations: Gremlin, Rage, Kuju, Warthog… "It would be contentious to suggest that these companies went under because they floated," he says. "Some were fundamentally unsustainable businesses that would have disappeared whether listed or private. What this list <b>demonstrates</b> is that the UK has had a very poor history of games company listings."But things were different<br><img src=""><br> then: several studios were undone by the dotcom collapse of 2000, others by an overreliance on<br><img src=""><br> capricious publishers in an era when self-publishing via digital distribution was impossible. The industry has evolved considerably in the past five years and Frontier can benefit from the opportunities offered by digital distribution and a range of new platforms.<br> "The key will be to under-promise and over-deliver," says<br><img src=""><br> Gibson. "In other <b>words,</b> to manage investor expectations and then to achieve consistent earnings and sales growth over many years."Right<br> now, Braben can't say a lot <b>about</b> the company's future plans, only that there will be announcements in the next few month. He's <b>still</b> wading through the AIM paperwork and there <b>are</b> apparently rules on what newly floated companies can reveal about coming projects. Chatting to <b>him</b> in the Brighton sunshine, he has the confidence of someone who has been in this industry for 30 years, who has ridden with its peaks and troughs.<br> "We've always had a very broad portfolio, we do all different kinds of games, which keeps us fresh," he says.<br> "It's important that we perform, it's important that we do exciting things."GamesPCGame cultureKickstarterRaspberry PiKeith &copy; 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.<br> All rights reserved.<br> | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Quito, Ecuador, is not considered <b>a</b> global leader by most measures.<br> But there is one way in which Quito is at the <b>forefront</b> of metropolises worldwide: in planning for climate change.<br> For <b>more</b> than a decade, officials in Ecuador’s mountainous capital have been studying the effects of global warming on nearby melting glaciers, developing ways of dealing with potential water shortages and even organizing conferences on climate change for leaders of other Latin American cities.In<br> so doing, Quito officials represent a global trend: The cities that are most active in preparing for climate change are not necessarily the biggest or wealthiest. Instead, they are <a href = "">tinnitus miracle </a> buffeted by natural disasters and increasing changes in temperature or rainfall. In places where the climate seems to be a growing threat to human lives, resources and urban infrastructure, local officials have been working with scientists, conducting assessments and examining which new measures may best prepare them for the future.<br> Indeed, as an MIT survey released today shows, 95 percent of major cities in Latin America are planning <b>for</b> climate change, compared to only 59 percent of such cities in the United States. Leadership <b>on</b> climate adaptation “can come from cities of many different sizes and ilks,” says JoAnn Carmin, an associate professor in<br><img src=""><br> MIT’s <b>Department</b> <b>of</b> Urban Studies and Planning and lead author of the survey’s report. While international climate policy measures — such as <b>potential</b> agreements limiting greenhouse gas emissions — require agreement among national <b>governments,</b> Carmin says, “cities are able to make some important<br><img src=""><br> <b>strides</b> in this area.<br> There are numerous examples from around the world where there are no national policies or explicit support for adaptation, but where local governments are developing plans and taking action to address climate impacts.”The<br> survey is the first to systematically <b>investigate</b> the efforts of <b>cities</b> around the globe to adapt to climate change. Among 468 cities worldwide that participated in the survey, 79 percent have seen changes in temperature, <b>rainfall,</b> sea level or other <b>phenomena</b> attributable to climate change; 68 percent are pursuing plans for adapting to climate change; and 19 percent have completed a formal assessment of global warming’s impact.U.S.<br> cities are lagging in this area, Carmin believes, because climate change, <b>for</b> various <b>reasons,</b> is a more politically contentious issue in this country than elsewhere.<br> “Climate change discussion is off the table, quite frankly, more in the U.S.<br> than anywhere else,” Carmin says. “We are caught up over the cause of climate change, and this has led all climate-related issues to become highly politicized, undermining our potential to focus on <b>promoting</b> long-term urban resilience. This is not the case in many other countries where they take climate change as a given and are able to move forward with adaptation alongside their efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas<br><img src=""><br> emissions.”Same<br> effects, but to a greater degree?The survey report — “Progress and Challenges in Urban Climate Adaptation” — was written by Carmin and MIT graduate students Nikhil <b>Nadkarni</b> and Christopher Rhie.<br> The survey was conducted in partnership with ICLEI - Local Governments <b>for</b> Sustainability, a membership organization of local governments<br><img src=""><br> from 70 countries. The survey was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. While many factors explain the willingness of some cities to pursue climate-adaptation planning, local governments<br><img src=""><br> moving ahead in this realm tend to integrate adaptation efforts into existing departmental responsibilities. Climate change may become a problem of unique magnitude, but some of its possible effects — such as the potential <b>to</b> create large storms and flooding, or deadly heat waves — are hazards local governments already grapple with.<br> “We <b>expect</b> government departments will work mostly in the same ways they always do,” Carmin says.<br> “Some cities have established task forces and commissions to jumpstart adaptation.<br> However, it’s not like they’re going to set up some separate major department to try to implement <b>everything.</b> … If you’re working on stormwater management or public health provisions or<br><img src=""><br> emergency preparedness, you’re going to continue to work on those using the tools you have available, it’s just that now you account for projected climate changes in the context of your planning and implementation.”Some<br> of Carmin’s own field research, apart from the new survey, explores this issue in depth. In a paper published this spring in the Journal of Planning Education and Research, “Urban Climate Adaptation in the Global South,” Carmin and co-authors Isabelle Anguelovski and Debra Roberts analyzed the local politics of <b>climate</b> planning in Quito and Durban, South Africa, another leader in planning for the potential effects of climate change. <b>Places</b> such as these, the authors <b>concluded</b> in the paper, are “creatively <b>linking</b> new agendas to existing goals, plans and programs.” Durban, for instance, has suffered from extensive flooding in the past and is now <b>addressing</b> the matter as a climate-change policy issue.The extent of change in many cities throughout the developing world, through rapid growth or migration, should also give leaders in those <b>places</b> reason to <b>consider</b> how climate change could affect those areas, notes Karen Seto, an associate professor of the urban environment at Yale University. “A place that is rapidly developing needs to think about <b>both</b> climate change adaptation and mitigation,” Seto says.<br> <b>By</b> contrast, she notes, “I’m not <b>surprised</b> that a smaller percentage of cities in the U.S. are thinking about adaptation.<br> In the U.S. and in countries where income<br><img src=""><br> levels are relatively high, there is this false belief that we can buy ourselves out of it,<br><img src=""><br> that we can buy some technology to fix things, or that some other institution, whether it’s local, regional or national government, will come help save us.”As Carmin observes, climate change does present one new hurdle for urban planners in any part of the world: <b>the</b> need<br><img src=""><br> <b>to</b> start using scientific projections to understand the potentially novel impact of global warming.<br> “Urban planning <b>traditionally</b> uses historical trends as a baseline,” Carmin says.<br> “We also need to begin looking at the projections. If we want to protect human lives and urban assets over the long term, we need<br><img src=""><br> to be prepared for new impacts and for greater variability and magnitude in impacts than we have <b>experienced</b> in the past.<br> That means looking at both historical data and climate projections<br><img src=""><br> and generating multiple scenarios of what a city might face in 50 or 100 years.<br> It’s <b>not</b> perfect, but we need to plan based on a forward vision, instead of only looking backward.”National help neededTo be sure, some large U.S.<br> urban areas, such as New York and Chicago, have also been leaders in planning for climate change.<br> But as Carmin acknowledges, even the largest city can only do so much by itself; help from the national government, including financial support, is ultimately essential.  “Many cities feel that national governments don’t understand the challenges they face,” says Carmin, who readily notes that “there’s a limit” to what cities can accomplish without more federal support.Moreover, because global warming is a highly complex phenomenon, long-range climate models inevitably contain uncertainty. That means local governments in some cities may be reluctant to <b>invest</b> in physical infrastructure or specific <b>programs</b> based on<br><img src=""><br> these projections.<br> “Cities are aware of the uncertainty,” Carmin says.<br> “While many are not going to sit and wait for the <b>science</b> to be perfected, they are also not going to put <b>all</b> their resources in one basket.”As a result of the uncertainty and<br><img src=""><br> limited resources, she adds, much of what local governments are doing at the moment “is <b>small-scale</b> change, incremental planning and a lot of nonstructural measures, like planning and outreach to the public.<br> In the long term, that will not be sufficient.<br> For now, however, cities are being creative and taking action in ways that are feasible given the scientific, <b>political</b> and resource constraints they face.”<br> The budget crisis <b>facing</b> many states is threatening to undermine key elements of President Obama's agenda, but with Republicans in control of the House and widespread concern over the federal deficit, he has few options to make a significant difference. Rep.<br> Paul Ryan (R-Wis.)<br> delivered a <b>wonky</b> speech to the Conservative Political Action Conference on Friday, just a<br><img src=""><br> week <b>after</b> releasing the latest version of his House Republican budget.<br> The 2012 GOP vice presidential nominee argued that the government's record debt is a sign that it is doing<br><img src=""><br> too much. But he also sought to allay concerns that Republicans will simply cut indiscriminately. Read full article <b>&#62;&#62;</b> Changing habits can be fun for a few weeks.<br> But for most people, <b>the</b> novelty soon wears off. Despite our good intentions, we fall back into our old patterns, even when they risk our health.<br> RAF's <b>unmanned</b> Reaper <b>aircraft</b> <b>had</b> been operated from Creech airforce base in Nevada, but missions from Lincolnshire began this weekRemotely controlled armed drones used to target insurgents in Afghanistan have been operated from the UK for the first time, the Ministry of Defence said on Thursday.Missions<br> of the missile-carrying <b>Reaper</b> aircraft began from a newly<br><img src=""><br> built headquarters at RAF Waddington in Lincolnshire earlier this week – five years after the <b>MoD</b> bought the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor and attack the Taliban.Since<br> then the UK <b>has</b> been controlling the RAF's <b>five</b> Reaper aircraft from Creech airforce base in Nevada because the<br><img src=""><br> <b>British</b> military did not have the <b>capability</b> to fly them from here.However,<br> the MoD made building a new UAV hub at Waddington a priority following the 2010 strategic defence and security review, and the centre "stood up" at the end of last year.Waddington<br><br><img src=",1282563478,27/stock-photo-portrait-of-pretty-young-female-in-sportswear-and-smiling-59839249.jpg"><br> has become the home of <b>XIII</b> squadron, and defence officials said pilots from <b>the</b> unit have now started to take command of Reapers, working in tandem with the team in America.There<br> are three operating terminals at the base in Lincolnshire, and they <b>had</b> to go <b>through</b> extensive technical trials before they were deemed ready for use."We aren't flying any more operations than <b>we</b> were before, but with the time differences between the US, Afghanistan and the UK, it is now possible for pilots at Waddington to work in relay with<br><img src=""><br> the those in the <b>US,"</b> said a <b>source.There</b> are no current plans to disband the squadron in the US, <b>which</b> is expected to continue operating until the end of next year, when all Nato combat operations in Afghanistan will <b>finally</b> come to an end.The RAF has bought five more Reaper aircraft, which are expected to <b>be</b> deployed in Afghanistan <b>over</b> the summer, bringing the total to 10. British UAVs have flown 45,000 hours in Afghanistan, and fired 350 weapons, including <b>Hellfire</b> missiles.Though<br> the MoD insists it operates with aircraft only in support of British troops, and only <b>in</b> Helmand province, the use of UAVs has been dominated by the CIA's controversial programme to target insurgent leaders in Pakistan.These strikes have sometimes caused civilian casualties, and have raised questions over the legality and<br><img src=""><br> morality of using remotely piloted systems in areas that<br><img src=""><br> are not conflict<br><img src=""><br> zones.The disclosure comes at a sensitive time for the MoD – just <b>two</b> days before a protest outside RAF Waddington organised by CND, the Drone Campaign Network, Stop the War and War on Want.The coalition has warned that switching control of drones to Waddington from US <b>bases</b> marks an unwelcome expansion in the UK's UAV programme."Drones, controlled far away from <b>conflict</b> zones, ease politicians' decisions to launch military strikes and order extra-judicial assassinations, without democratic oversight or accountability to the public," said Rafeef Ziadah, from War on Want.Chris Nineham, vice-chair of the Stop the War Coalition, added: "Drones <b>are</b> being used to continue the deeply unpopular War on Terror, with no public scrutiny. They're using them to fight wars behind our backs. These remote-controlled killing machines should be banned."DronesAfghanistanMilitaryMinistry <b>of</b> DefenceRoyal Air ForceDefence policyNick<br> &copy; 2013 <b>Guardian</b> <b>News</b> and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. <b>All</b> rights reserved.<br> | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More <b>Feeds&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</b> FIFA president Sepp Blatter <b>is</b> unruffled by Brazil's stop-start <b>preparations</b> for the 2014 World Cup, saying delays and hiccups are part and parcel of the run-up <b>to</b> the tournament. <b>As</b><br><img src=""><br> the Pentagon seeks to trim spending, there are some programs Congress believes the military can't do without. Among them: cancer research.<br> Building owner, factory owner and engineer accused, as death toll in disaster reaches 622The wife of a garment worker killed in the Bangladesh factory collapse <b>has</b> filed a murder complaint against the building's owner, as the death toll from the country's worst industrial<br><img src=""><br> disaster climbed to 622.Murder<br> complaints were also filed against the owner of <b>one</b> of the garment firms based in the building <b>and</b> a municipal engineer in the suburb of the capital, Dhaka, where the factory was located.The<br> owner of the Rana Plaza building, Mohammed <b>Sohel</b> Rana, was arrested after a four-day hunt as he appeared to be trying <b>to</b> flee across the border to India. He is <b>one</b> of nine people being held in connection with the disaster on 24 April, which the government has blamed on the building's faulty and illegal construction.Rana and the others in <b>police</b> custody <b>could</b> face the death penalty if found guilty of murder or mass manslaughter. None of the accused have commented on accusations that they were to blame.Hundreds<br> of relatives gathered at the site of <b>the</b> disaster on Sunday, some holding up photographs of family members. A teenage girl broke down in<br><img src=""><br> tears when she recognised the body of her mother by her dress <b>after</b> she was brought <b>from</b> the ruins.In<br> all, 53 bodies were recovered on Sunday and rescue workers said they could see more <b>trapped</b> in the<br><img src=""><br> rubble.<br> Authorities were having to use ID <b>cards</b> and <b>mobile</b> <b>phones</b> to <b>identify</b> the &copy; 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its <b>affiliated</b> companies.<br> All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More

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